Accountants put together trial stability to verify the correctness of accounts. If whole of debit balances doesn’t agree with the entire of credit score balances, it’s a clear-cut indication that sure errors have been dedicated whereas recording the transactions within the books of unique entry or subsidiary books. It’s our utmost responsibility to find these errors and rectify them, solely then we must always proceed for getting ready ultimate accounts. We additionally know that every one sorts of errors aren’t revealed by trial stability as among the errors don’t impact the entire of trial stability. So these can’t be positioned with the assistance of trial stability. An accountant ought to make investments his vitality to find each sorts of errors and rectify them earlier than getting ready buying and selling, revenue and loss account and stability sheet. As a result of if these are ready earlier than rectification these won’t give us the proper end result and revenue and loss disclosed by them, shall not be the precise revenue or loss.
All errors of accounting process will be categorised as follows:
1. Errors of Precept
When a transaction is recorded towards the elemental ideas of accounting, it’s an error of precept. For instance, if income expenditure is handled as capital expenditure or vice versa.
2. Clerical Errors
These errors can once more be sub-divided as follows:
(i) Errors of omission
When a transaction is both wholly or partially not recorded within the books, it’s an error of omission. It might be with regard to omission to enter a transaction within the books of unique entry or with regard to omission to put up a transaction from the books of unique entry to the account involved within the ledger.
(ii) Errors of fee
When an entry is incorrectly recorded both wholly or partially-incorrect posting, calculation, casting or balancing. Among the errors of fee impact the trial stability whereas others don’t. Errors effecting the trial stability will be revealed by getting ready a trial stability.
(iii) Compensating errors
Typically an error is counter-balanced by one other error in such a approach that it isn’t disclosed by the trial stability. Such errors are known as compensating errors.
From the viewpoint of rectification of the errors, these will be divided into two teams :
(a) Errors affecting one account solely, and
(b) Errors affecting two or extra accounts.
Errors affecting one account
Errors which have an effect on will be :
(a) Casting errors;
(b) error of posting;
(c) carry ahead;
(d) balancing; and
(e) omission from trial stability.
Such errors ought to, initially, be positioned and rectified. These are rectified both with the assistance of journal entry or by giving an explanatory notice within the account involved.
Phases of correction of accounting errors
All sorts of errors in accounts will be rectified at two phases:
(i) earlier than the preparation of the ultimate accounts; and
(ii) after the preparation of ultimate accounts.
Errors rectified throughout the accounting interval
The right methodology of correction of an error is to move journal entry in such a approach that it corrects the error that has been dedicated and likewise offers impact to the entry that ought to have been handed. However whereas errors are being rectified earlier than the preparation of ultimate accounts, in sure instances the correction cannot be executed with the assistance of journal entry as a result of the errors have been such. Usually, the process of rectification, if being executed, earlier than the preparation of ultimate accounts is as follows:
(a) Correction of errors affecting one facet of 1 account Such errors don’t let the trial stability agree as they impact just one facet of 1 account so these cannot be corrected with the assistance of journal entry, if correction is required earlier than the preparation of ultimate accounts. So required quantity is placed on debit or credit score facet of the involved account, because the case perhaps. For instance:
(i) Gross sales e-book below solid by Rs. 500 within the month of January. The error is barely in gross sales account, in an effort to right the gross sales account, we must always report on the credit score facet of gross sales account ‘By below casting of. gross sales e-book for the month of January Rs. 500″.I’Rationalization:As gross sales e-book was below solid by Rs. 500, it means all accounts apart from gross sales account are right, solely credit score stability of gross sales account is much less by Rs. 500. So Rs. 500 have been credited in gross sales account.
(ii) Low cost allowed to Marshall Rs. 50, not posted to low cost account. It implies that the quantity of Rs. 50 which ought to have been debited in low cost account has not been debited, so the debit facet of low cost account has been lowered by the identical quantity. We must always debit Rs. 50 in low cost account now, which was omitted beforehand and the low cost account shall be corrected.
(iil) Items bought to X wrongly debited in gross sales account. This error is effecting solely gross sales account as the quantity which ought to have been posted on the credit score facet has been wrongly positioned on debit facet of the identical account. For rectifying it, we must always put double the quantity of transaction on the credit score facet of gross sales account by writing “By gross sales to X wrongly debited beforehand.”
(iv) Quantity of Rs. 500 paid to Y, not debited to his private account. This error of effecting the private account of Y solely and its debit facet is much less by Rs. 500 due to omission to put up the quantity paid. We will now write on its debit facet. “To money (omitted to be posted) Rs. 500.
Correction of errors affecting two sides of two or extra accounts
As these errors have an effect on two or extra accounts, rectification of such errors, if being executed earlier than the preparation of ultimate accounts can typically be executed with the assistance of a journal entry. Whereas correcting these errors the quantity is debited in a single account/accounts whereas comparable quantity is credited to another account/ accounts.
Correction of errors in subsequent accounting interval
As said earlier, that it’s advisable to find and rectify the errors earlier than getting ready the ultimate accounts for the 12 months. However in sure instances when after appreciable search, the accountant fails to find the errors and he’s in a rush to organize the ultimate accounts, of the enterprise for submitting the return for gross sales tax or earnings tax functions, he transfers the quantity of distinction of trial stability to a newly opened ‘Suspense Account’. Within the subsequent accounting interval, as and when the errors are positioned these are corrected with regards to suspense account. When all of the errors are found and rectified the suspense account shall be closed mechanically. We must always not overlook right here that solely these errors which impact the totals of trial stability will be corrected with the assistance of suspense account. These errors which don’t impact the trial stability cannot be corrected with the assistance of suspense account. For instance, whether it is discovered that debit whole of trial stability was much less by Rs. 500 given that Wilson’s account was not debited with Rs. 500, the next rectifying entry is required to be handed.
Distinction in trial stability
Trial stability is affected by solely errors that are rectified with the assistance of the suspense account. Subsequently, in an effort to calculate the distinction in suspense account a desk can be ready. If the suspense account is debited in’ the rectification entry the quantity can be placed on the debit facet of the desk. However, if the suspense account is credited, the quantity can be placed on the credit score facet of the desk. In the long run, the stability is calculated and is reversed within the suspense account. If the credit score facet exceeds, the distinction can be placed on the debit facet of the suspense account. Impact of Errors of Closing Accounts
1. Errors effecting revenue and loss account
You will need to notice the impact that an en-or shall have on internet revenue of the agency. One level to recollect right here is that solely these accounts that are transferred to buying and selling and revenue and loss account on the time of preparation of ultimate accounts impact the online revenue. It implies that solely errors in nominal accounts and items account will impact the online revenue. Error within the these accounts will both enhance or lower the online revenue.
How the errors or their rectification impact the profit-following guidelines are useful in understanding it :
(i) If due to an error a nominal account has been given some debit the revenue will lower or losses will enhance, and when it’s rectified the earnings will enhance and the losses will lower. For instance, equipment is overhauled for Rs. 10,000 however the quantity debited to equipment repairs account -this error will cut back the revenue. In rectifying entry the quantity shall be transferred to equipment account from equipment repairs account, and it’ll enhance the earnings.
(il) If due to an error the quantity is omitted from recording on the debit facet of a nominal account-it leads to enhance of earnings or lower in losses. The rectification of this error shall have reverse impact, which implies the revenue can be lowered and losses can be elevated. For instance, hire paid to landlord however the quantity has been debited to private account of landlord-it will enhance the revenue because the expense on hire is lowered. When the error is rectified, we are going to put up the mandatory quantity in hire account which is able to enhance the expenditure on hire and so earnings can be lowered.
(iil) Revenue will enhance or losses will lower if a nominal account is wrongly credited. With the rectification of this error, the earnings will lower and losses will enhance. For instance, investments have been bought and the quantity was credited to gross sales account. This error will enhance earnings (or cut back losses) when the identical error is rectified the quantity shall be transferred from gross sales account to investments account on account of which gross sales can be lowered which is able to lead to lower in earnings (or enhance in losses).
(iv) Revenue will lower or losses will enhance if an account is omitted from posting within the credit score facet of a nominal or items account. When the identical can be rectified it would enhance the revenue or cut back the losses. For instance, fee acquired is omitted to be posted to the credit score of fee account. This error will lower earnings ( or enhance losses) as an earnings isn’t credited to revenue and loss account. When the error can be rectified, it would have reverse impact on revenue and loss as an extra earnings can be credited to revenue and loss account so the revenue will enhance ( or the losses will lower). If on account of any error the revenue or losses are effected, it would have its impact on capital account additionally as a result of earnings are credited and losses are debited within the capital account and so the capital shall additionally enhance or lower. As capital is proven on the liabilities facet of stability sheet so any error in nominal account will impact stability sheet as effectively. So we will say that an error in nominal account or items account results revenue and loss account in addition to stability sheet.
2. Errors effecting stability sheet solely
If an error is dedicated in an actual or private account, it would impact property, liabilities, debtors or collectors of the agency and in consequence it would have its impression on stability sheet alone. as a result of this stuff are proven in stability sheet solely and stability sheet is ready after the revenue and loss account has been ready. So if there may be any error in money account, checking account, asset or legal responsibility account it would impact solely stability sheet.