Accounts recording transactions referring to people or corporations or firm are generally known as private accounts. Private accounts could additional be categorised as :
(1) Pure individual’s private accounts: The accounts recording transactions referring to particular person human beings e.g., Anand’s A/c, Remesh’s A/c, Pankaj’s A/c are categorised as pure individual’s private accounts.
(2) Synthetic individual’s private account: The accounts recording transactions referring to restricted firms. financial institution, agency, establishment, membership. and so on. e.g. Delhi Material Mill; Hans Raj School; Gymkhana Membership are categorised as synthetic individuals’ private accounts.
(three) Consultant private accounts: The accounts recording transactions referring to the bills and incomes are categorised as nominal accounts. However in sure instances because of the matching idea of accounting the quantity, on a selected date, is payable to the people or recoverable from people.
Such quantity (a) pertains to the actual head of expenditure or earnings and (b) represents individuals to whom itis payable or from whom it’s recoverable. Such accounts are categorised as consultant private accounts e.g. “Wages Excellent Account”, Pre-paid Insurance coverage Account. and so on.
The accounts recording transactions referring to tangible issues (which could be touched, bought and offered) resembling items, money, constructing. equipment and so on., are categorised as tangible actual accounts.
Whereas the accounts recording transactions referring to. intangible issues (which would not have bodily form) resembling goodwill, patents and replica rights. commerce marks and so on., are categorised as intangible actual accounts.
The accounts recording transactions referring to the losses, positive aspects. bills and incomes e.g., Hire, salaries, wages, fee, curiosity, dangerous money owed and so on. are categorised as nominal accounts. As already mentioned, wherever a nominal account represents the quantity payable to or receivable from sure individuals it is called consultant private account.
Guidelines of Debit and Credit score (classification based mostly)
1. Private Accounts: Debit the receiver, Credit score the giver (provider)
2. Actual Accounts: Debit what is available in, Credit score what goes out
three. Nominal Accounts: Debit bills and losses, Credit score incomes and positive aspects.,
Hints for Journalizing
The next dialogue will assist in diagnosing the transaction with a view to seek out out which accounts are related for passing the journal entry.
1. Remedy of money/credit score transaction.
Learn rigorously the next transactions:
(i) Bought items for Rs. 1,200 money. .
(ii) Bought items for Rs. 1,200.
(iii) Bought items for Rs. 1,200 from Arun.
(iv) Bought items for Rs. 1,200 from Arun on money.
Transaction (i) and (iv) are clear because it has been particularly acknowledged that purchases have been made on money. Thus the entry is :
Purchases account Dr. 1,200 To Money account 1,200
Transaction (ii) and (iii) aren’t particular as as to if the purchases are for money or on credit score. Nevertheless transaction (ii) doesn’t point out any identify of the provider; due to this fact it implies that the purchases are for money. Equally transaction (iii) mentions the identify of the provider however is silent concerning cash-it implies that purchases are on credit score: Thus the entry for transaction (iii) is
Purchases account Dr. 1,200 To Amex 1200.
2. Remedy of fee on private/bills account.
When fee is made to an individual towards quantity as a consequence of him as per his ledger account-the private account of the creditor ought to be debited. Nevertheless if the fee is being made to an individual representing enterprise expenditure then the actual expenditure (nominal) account ought to be debited.
three. Remedy of receipt on private/ earnings account.
When quantity is acquired from an individual towards quantity recoverable from him as per ledger account-the private account of the debtor ought to be credited. Nevertheless if the quantity acquired represents enterprise earnings, then the actual earnings (nominal) account ought to be credited.
four. Remedy of commerce low cost.
In lots of instances the vendor permits to the client deduction off the checklist worth. Such deduction is called ‘commerce low cost’. Commerce low cost as such isn’t recorded within the books. The transaction is recorded with solely the web quantity i.e. (checklist worth -trade low cost).
5. Remedy- of money low cost (full settlement).
In some instances creditor could permit some concession to his debtor to immediate him to make the fee throughout the interval of credit score allowed. Such concession is called ‘money low cost’. It’s allowed by the individual receiving the fee and represents, expenditure. It’s availed by the individual making the fee and represents earnings.
6. Remedy of Unhealthy money owed (debtor changing into bancrupt).
An quantity due from a debtor could grow to be irrecoverable both partially or wholly. Cause could also be that he has been declared bancrupt or some other. Such irrecoverable quantity represents loss to the enterprise and is debited to Unhealthy money owed quantity.
7. Remedy of Unhealthy money owed recovered
It’s evident from the above entry that each time irrecoverable quantity is written off the non-public account is credited. If after a while any paymentis acquired towards a debt beforehand written of then it represents earnings and as such ought to be credited to an account styled as ‘Unhealthy money owed recovered account’. Private account should not be credited.
eight. Remedy of non-public bills of the proprietor
It’s fairly widespread for the proprietor to withdraw money or items from the enterprise for private or home use. Typically premium on the life coverage of the proprietor may additionally be paid by the enterprise. Equally earnings tax payable by the proprietor could also be paid by enterprise. All this represents proprietor’s private bills and are debited to his private account viz. Drawings account.
9. Remedy of fee/ receipt on behalf of buyer or provider.
In some instances enterprise would possibly pay bills on behalf of its prospects. Such funds don’t represent the expenditure of enterprise. Therefore it ought to be debited to the non-public account of the involved buyer.
10. Remedy or trade or new asset with previous one.
Typically enterprise could trade its previous asset with new one-only the distinction in worth is paid in money. In such instances asset account wants debit solely with the precise quantity paid.
11. Remedy of products given as charity/ commercial.
Enterprise would possibly distribute items as ‘free samples’ to promote its merchandise. In some instances it could additionally distribute items as charity to spice up its picture. Each ‘commercial’ and ‘charity’ are bills of the enterprise, therefore ought to be debited and purchases account ought to be credited.
12. Remedy of products misplaced in accident/ fireplace.
In sure case a enterprise would possibly endure lack of items as a consequence of some accident or fireplace and so on., destroyed or broken items might need been insured additionally. In such instances complete worth of products misplaced or destroyed is credited to purchases account and the (i) insurance coverage declare admitted is debited to Insurance coverage Firm (ii) steadiness is debited to loss by chance/ fireplace account.
13. Remedy of depreciation charged on mounted belongings.
Mounted belongings are these properties/ possessions of the enterprise that are used for carrying on of enterprise viz. plant, equipment, constructing and so on. Depreciation is the everlasting lower within the worth of an asset as a consequence of put on and tear, passage of time and obsolescence. Depreciation is handled as a enterprise expenditure. Depreciation account is debited and the respective asset account is credited.
14. Remedy of fee/ receipt of consultant private accounts.
On the shut of the earlier accounting yr a enterprise might need incurred expenditure which remained unpaid. It is called ‘Excellent expenditure’. It’s a consultant private account. When precise fee is made in present accounting interval the involved account is debited and money account is credited.
Benefits of Journal
(1) Transactions are recorded within the chronological order, thus lowering the probabilities of omitting any transaction.
(2) Transactions, invariably, are accompanied by narration. Thus, the entry is supplemented with primary data concerning the transactions.
(three) Debit and credit score quantities are written facet by facet. It minimizes the probabilities of coming into improper quantity.
Restricted use of Journal
Initially the system of recording the monetary transactions developed consisted of (1) writing every transaction, with narration, within the guide of authentic entry,
i.e.. Journal after which (2) posting therefrom to the respective accounts within the principal guide, i.e., ledger. Because the variety of transactions’ grew the system was modified and the transactions of comparable
nature say purchases, gross sales, money and so on. have been recorded in sub-journal as a substitute of journal for the next
(i) If too many transactions are recorded in journal it is going to be unwieldy.
(ii) In each enterprise money steadiness is required to be ascertained at frequent intervals, say, on a regular basis: due to this fact it was discovered handy to make use of a separate guide for recording money
(iil) By recording transactions of comparable nature. in a single sub journal, say, purchases of products in purchases journal saves time and efforts in recording and posting.
Due to the explanations listed above, these days, journal is used to document solely such transactions that are rare. Now a days computerized accounting has made the entry of journal very simple and correct.
Double Entry System
Within the 15th century a Franciscan Monk, Lucas Pacioli, described a technique of arranging accounts in such a approach that the twin side (current in each account transaction) could be expressed by a debit quantity and an equal and offsetting credit score quantity.
Double Entry system is the system beneath which every transaction is regarded to have two fold features and each the features are recorded to acquire full document of dealings. Double Entry system of guide retaining adheres to the rule. that for every transactions the debit quantity (s) should equal the credit score quantity(s). That’s the reason this technique known as Double Entry.
Benefits of Double Entry System
(i) It permits to maintain an entire document of enterprise transactions.
(ii) It gives a examine on the arithmetical accuracy of books of accounts based mostly on equality of debit and credit score.
(iii) It provides the outcomes of enterprise actions both revenue or loss throughout the accounting interval.
(iv) It tells the monetary place of the enterprise at some extent of time. Whole assets of the enterprise, claims of the outsiders, quantity due by outsiders and so on. are revealed by an announcement generally known as Steadiness Sheet.
(v) It makes doable comparability of the present yr with these of earlier years serving to the proprietor to handle his enterprise on higher strains.
(vi) It reduces the probabilities of errors creeping within the accounting information due to its equality precept. .
(vii) It helps to establish the main points concerning any account simply and precisely. Different techniques of book-keeping. Along with the double entry system, there’s additionally single entry system.
The only-entry system is “a system of book-keeping during which as a rule solely information of money and of non-public account are maintained; it’s all the time incomplete double entry various with circumstances. Such system could also be economical however it’s incomplete, unscientific and filled with defects.
Compound Journal Entries
If in a journal entry just one account is to be debited and just one account is to be credited then such an entry is ‘Easy Journal Entry’. Nevertheless, in some instances the entry could require a couple of debit or credit score or each. Such entries are generally known as compound entries. Compound entries ought to be created the place
(i) Transaction happen on the identical day
(ii) One side of those transactions is widespread; and
(iii) Accounts concerned are greater than two Actually compound entry is the mixture of two or extra easy journal ntries.